The development of Arabic calligraphy and its diverse manifestations can be attributed to the adaptability of Arabic letters, the variability in writing instruments, and the unique shapes of the characters. Over time, the styles of Arabic calligraphy have expanded and diversified, prompting continuous innovation and the creation of new letter forms by artists and enthusiasts in the field.
An exhaustive exploration of all Arabic calligraphy types would be impractical. For instance, focusing solely on the Kufic script would lead to an extensive discussion. One researcher has identified 120 different forms of Kufic script, alongside numerous other styles.
Arabic calligraphy is characterized by three fundamental qualities, prioritized in the following order:
- Clarity for reading and comprehension
- Ease of writing
- Aesthetic appeal
These attributes form the basis for the placement of the script, ensuring readability and understanding. As the saying goes, "The best script is the one that is easily read." An acceptable script, in terms of form, minimizes the time required by the calligrapher, occupies less space on pages, is concise, and facilitates efficient execution of the calligrapher's task.
Aesthetic appeal is inherently subjective, varying based on the preferences of individuals or groups. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that scenes from nature, such as springs, trees, fields, orchards, and flowers, as well as colorful birds, well-arranged flocks, orderly caravans, and rhythmic pedestrian movements, evoke a sense of order and elevate admiration.